By Dialogo September 03, 2010 Bernardo Mosquera Machado, alias Negro Antonio, former commander of the FARC guerrilla group’s Front 42, was sentenced to forty-six years in prison for an attack on a town in which four civilians and a policeman died in 1999, the Colombian attorney-general’s office announced Wednesday. Mosquera was found guilty of the offenses of aggravated homicide, attempted aggravated homicide, aggravated terrorism, robbery, and aggravated robbery, the attorney-general’s office specified in a press release. According to the decision by the First Circuit Court of the department of Cundinamarca, Mosquera was found guilty of “ordering, directing, and executing” the attack on the town of Cúmaca (in central Colombia) on 27 January 1999, which left five people dead and two police and four civilians wounded. The guerrilla fighter has been jailed since February 2009, after being taken prisoner in combat by the army. The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC, Marxists) have been engaged in armed struggle against the state for forty-six years and currently have around eight thousand fighters, according to official estimates.
I write this comment from a place of the Dominican Republic called Moca to tell you that you have a good newspaper. I accessed this newspaper while looking for information for a news blog that I have. I liked this newspaper. Continue this way. I am a social communicator here in my town. www.radioideal995.com and my blog is correcaminodemoca.blogspot.com By Dialogo October 11, 2012 Heriberto Lazcano, alias “El Lazca,” leader of Mexican drug trafficking gang Los Zetas, was killed in a confrontation with Mexican Military forces in the toughest strike against drug trafficking made by the government of Felipe Calderón. However, shortly after, his body was stolen from a funeral home. Los Zetas is the cruelest criminal organization in the country. In recent years, the group extended its power towards the northeast border with the United States, along the Mexican Gulf up to Guatemala, and is currently engaged in a deadly fight with the Sinaloa Cartel, led by another wanted drug lord, Joaquín “El Chapo” Guzmán, who escaped from a high security prison in Mexico, in January 2001. The Mexican Prosecutor’s Office was offering a $2.6 million reward for Lazcano, born in 1975, while the United States was offering $5 million. According to the Navy, Lazcano and one of his men died in a confrontation on October 7 near Progreso (3,500 inhabitants), in the northern state of Coahuila and on the border with Texas. The Mexican Navy published photographs of the body with his fingerprints on October 9. The pictures were taken before the body was stolen on October 8, from a funeral home in the town of Sabinas. “Facial features match those of Heriberto Lazcano,” the statement said adding that “forensic tests continue on information and samples collected during the legal autopsy.” A heavily armed commando broke into the funeral home and took the corpse around 1:30 am on October 8, said Prosecutor Homero Ramos, of Coahuila, in a press conference. Lazcano was particularly known for his bloodthirsty character. Drug trafficking expert Ricardo Ravelo, author of a book about Los Zetas, told AFP that Lazcano “set the trend of decapitating” victims and recruited Guatemalan militias to execute bloody massacres. In 2010, Los Zetas broke ties with their old Gulf Cartel bosses, generating a bloody battle in the country’s northeast. The U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration confirmed that by the end of 2011, “El Chapo” Guzmán agreed with other criminal organizations to confront Los Zetas, whose ramifications extended through the Mexican Gulf up to Guatemala. In addition to drug trafficking, Los Zetas have practiced human trafficking and kidnapping of immigrants, extortion, and fuel theft. Among other bloody crimes, Los Zetas are accused of the massacre of 72 migrants in Northern Mexico, in August 2010, the largest slaughter attributed to a drug trafficking organization in Mexico. Another of the crimes attributed to “El Lazca” is the killing of 52 people, mostly women, in a Monterrey casino (capital of Nuevo León, north of Mexico) in August 2011, where they set the building on fire in broad daylight, apparently because the owner refused to pay for extortions.
By Dialogo April 15, 2013 WASHINGTON — As U.S. secretary of defense in the Clinton administration, William J. Perry often envisioned a place where scholars and officials from throughout the Western Hemisphere could study how the military functions in a democratic society. Perry’s idea would become the Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies at Washington’s National Defense University. Yet once he left his post in 1997, Perry often wondered if the center would survive him. That doubt turned out to be one of the few misjudgments in Perry’s long military career, one in which he was key in the development of the Pentagon’s Stealth aircraft and Global Positioning System technology. On April 2, the CHDS was named in his honor during a ceremony at Fort McNair, where the project is located. Speaking to an audience that included his family, foreign generals and embassy dignitaries and former Georgia Sen. Sam Nunn, the 85-year-old Perry reminded his audience that a civilian-run military shouldn’t be taken for granted. “That might be obvious and simple to all of you,” said Perry, speaking in the Abraham Lincoln Hall auditorium. “But believe me, it isn’t so simple in other countries.” Perry helped foster regional military cooperation Ideological resistance to the idea of wide-ranging cooperation among defense departments throughout the Americas was evident early in Perry’s tenure in the Clinton administration. The 19th U.S. secretary of defense recalled how he wanted to visit Mexico City to engage his counterpart, Gen. Enrique Cervantes Aguirre, and was told it was not a good idea due to lingering resentments against the United States dating back to the mid-19th century. “I wanted to push the reset button on relations with Mexico,” said Perry, who nonetheless pursued a relationship with Aguirre and in October 1995 became the first U.S. defense secretary in modern times to visit Mexico. The emerging friendship helped thaw relations between the militaries of the two neighboring countries and led to the first Defense Ministerial of the Americas in Williamsburg, Virginia, in August 1995. From these meetings, the Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies — now the William J. Perry Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies — was born in 1997. “This is very important for the exchange of ideas and understanding one another,” said Lt. Col. Ricardo Melendez, a military attaché to the Mexican Embassy who attended the ceremony. “It’s good to know how the United States has achieved” balance between military officials and the civilian agencies which direct them. The glaring exception to hemispheric cooperation is Cuba. In the autumn of 1962, Perry — then director of a private defense laboratory in California — was summoned to Washington by the Kennedy administration to help assess the threat of Soviet missile bases in Cuba. Words of praise from Paul Kern, Ashton Carter Also present at the CHDS ceremony was a man who accompanied Perry on some of the most historic events of the 1990s, including the 1995 Dayton Accords which effectively ended Bosnia’s civil war. That man is retired Army Gen. Paul J. Kern, Perry’s senior military assistant during his tenure as defense secretary. “Without Secretary Perry’s influence, we would never have gone into the Balkans,” said Kern, 67, former commanding general of the U.S. Army Material Command. “He re-energized NATO to act as things were getting worse [in the former Yugoslavia] instead of better.” It was also a moment when a Russian brigade joined an American division in Bosnia, marking bilateral military cooperation for the first time since the end of World War II. “Bill helped negotiate peace in the Balkans and welcomed Russia into the KFOR” international peacekeeping force in Kosovo, said Dr. Ashton B. Carter, 58, a protégé of Perry’s who introduced him at the re-naming ceremony. “Vision and integrity equals Bill Perry,” said Carter, currently the nation’s deputy secretary of defense under Chuck Hagel. “His achievements were highlighted in the Ukraine in the summer of 1996 when the last nuclear weapons left that country.” But it was progress on this side of the world that the pomp — accompanied with song by the United States Marine Brass Quintet — was all about. Inscribed on the Perry Center’s seal are the Latin words mens et fides mutual which mean “understanding and mutual trust. Renaming ceremony helps Perry’s legacy endure The center was inaugurated Sept. 17, 1997, about eight months after Perry left the Pentagon. Its aim is to foster partnerships with other nations while advancing defense and promoting civilian-military relationships in democratic societies. And it does this through a variety of academic projects, research and outreach programs. Other activities include post-graduate seminars in national security planning workshops. The center began accepting its first students in early 1998. Kenneth A. LaPlante, acting director of the Perry Center, said it took an act of Congress and just over five years to get the center renamed for Perry. LaPlante noted that during Perry’s tenure as defense secretary, three other centers with similar goals were established around the world: the Marshall European Center for Security Studies in Germany; the Asia Pacific center in Hawaii and the Africa Center for Strategic Studies, also on the NDU campus at Fort McNair. All of these things, Perry said, show “just how much the world has changed, just how much our security has changed … how much the Department of Defense has changed and just how much [the job of secretary of defense] has changed. Those changes, as well as stories about the man who helped bring them about, are being documented by Perry’s daughter Robin, who now assists her father with writing his memoirs. “When we were growing up back in Palo Alto, we thought of him as just a father who loved his family,” she said. “But when Dad went to the Pentagon for the first time in 1977, we all knew how accomplished he’d become.” Let’s follow the example of William Perry’s vision. His capacity for equilibrium, for mutual understanding between soldiers and civilians, which lead us towards development with peace, justice and safety. It is a good tribute for those of us that follow him.
The ICONS program seeks expertise in accelerator and plasma science, high-voltage engineering, enabling multi-function materials, integrated design optimization, and pulsed power. “We’re looking for innovative designs and construction methods to shrink a neutron accelerator from 10 meters or longer down to 1 meter or less, similar to the size of portable X-ray tubes today,” said Vincent Tang, DARPA program manager. “Creating a high-yield, directional neutron source in a very compact package is a significant challenge,” Tang added. “But a successful ICONS program would provide an imaging tool with significant national security applications, able to deliver very detailed, accurate internal imaging of objects in any setting.” Seeking to expand the United States’ capability to detect and identify materials that are not easily visualized by conventional imaging technologies, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) released an announcement inviting proposals to develop portable, next-generation imaging tools that combine the complementary benefits of X-ray and neutron radiography. X-Ray imaging has proven invaluable in a host of military and commercial applications—from spotting tiny cracks in aircraft wings, to making medical diagnoses, to scanning passengers’ bags to keep the flying public safe. As useful as X-ray scanning is, however, it is limited in what it detects. For example, while X-ray radiography can highlight heavier chemical elements very well (think of shiny silver fillings on a dental X-ray), it’s not very good at revealing lighter elements, such as hydrogen. That’s why X-ray radiography machines are generally “blind” to water or other liquids. DARPA’s new Intense and Compact Neutron Sources (ICONS) program seeks to develop a portable unit able to generate both neutrons and X-rays. Such a device would harness the complementary strengths of the two imaging sources and enable much more detailed radiography in field settings. The ICONS program seeks expertise in accelerator and plasma science, high-voltage engineering, enabling multi-function materials, integrated design optimization, and pulsed power. By contrast, neutron radiography—which uses neutrons to image objects—is very good at visualizing lighter elements and liquids, in some cases even identifying a substance’s atomic makeup. Unfortunately, neutron sources are not nearly as portable and practical as X-ray machines, typically extending up to tens of meters in length and requiring powerful energy sources to generate the neutrons. DARPA’s new Intense and Compact Neutron Sources (ICONS) program seeks to develop a portable unit able to generate both neutrons and X-rays. Such a device would harness the complementary strengths of the two imaging sources and enable much more detailed radiography in field settings. “We’re looking for innovative designs and construction methods to shrink a neutron accelerator from 10 meters or longer down to 1 meter or less, similar to the size of portable X-ray tubes today,” said Vincent Tang, DARPA program manager. “Creating a high-yield, directional neutron source in a very compact package is a significant challenge,” Tang added. “But a successful ICONS program would provide an imaging tool with significant national security applications, able to deliver very detailed, accurate internal imaging of objects in any setting.” By contrast, neutron radiography—which uses neutrons to image objects—is very good at visualizing lighter elements and liquids, in some cases even identifying a substance’s atomic makeup. Unfortunately, neutron sources are not nearly as portable and practical as X-ray machines, typically extending up to tens of meters in length and requiring powerful energy sources to generate the neutrons. For example, Tang said, ICONS could enable non-destructive evaluation of military equipment with greater fidelity than X-rays, revealing water penetration and corrosion in aircraft wings and welds on ships. Neutron imaging could also help detect explosives and contraband by identifying the chemical and atomic make-up of an object or its contents. And it could assist in forensics and attribution, such as differentiating sources of ammunition through imaging of the propellant fill levels. X-Ray imaging has proven invaluable in a host of military and commercial applications—from spotting tiny cracks in aircraft wings, to making medical diagnoses, to scanning passengers’ bags to keep the flying public safe. As useful as X-ray scanning is, however, it is limited in what it detects. For example, while X-ray radiography can highlight heavier chemical elements very well (think of shiny silver fillings on a dental X-ray), it’s not very good at revealing lighter elements, such as hydrogen. That’s why X-ray radiography machines are generally “blind” to water or other liquids. For more information, visit: http://go.usa.gov/dWJw. By Dialogo January 01, 2015 For example, Tang said, ICONS could enable non-destructive evaluation of military equipment with greater fidelity than X-rays, revealing water penetration and corrosion in aircraft wings and welds on ships. Neutron imaging could also help detect explosives and contraband by identifying the chemical and atomic make-up of an object or its contents. And it could assist in forensics and attribution, such as differentiating sources of ammunition through imaging of the propellant fill levels. Seeking to expand the United States’ capability to detect and identify materials that are not easily visualized by conventional imaging technologies, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) released an announcement inviting proposals to develop portable, next-generation imaging tools that combine the complementary benefits of X-ray and neutron radiography. For more information, visit: http://go.usa.gov/dWJw.
By Geraldine Cook/Diálogo February 01, 2017 El Salvador has intensified its fight against the country’s criminal organizations, especially gangs. New government regulations and the participation of the Armed Forces are part of the strategies to eliminate the illegal structures of criminal organizations.Mara Salvatrucha and Barrio 18 are two of the main Salvadoran gangs involved in, among other criminal acts, drug trafficking, arms smuggling, human trafficking, extortion, and kidnapping. According to a report from the Central Reserve Bank of El Salvador published in April 2016, the violence generated by gangs cost the nation $4 million.The financial cost and national and regional security concerns caused by gangs worry Colonel Salvador Ernesto Hernández Vega, general Chief of Staff of the Salvadoran Air Force. That is why since assuming office in December 2015, he has supported his country’s Armed Forces role in helping to keep the peace internally and to defend the sovereignty and integrity of domestic airspace. Combating gangs in his country and throughout Central America has become one of his fundamental priorities.Col. Hernández spoke with Diálogo during the Central American Air Chiefs Conference, held December 12 and 13, 2016 at the Davis-Monthan Air Base in Tucson, Arizona.Diálogo: What is the importance of El Salvador’s presence at the Central American Air Chiefs Conference?Colonel Ernesto Hernández Vega: Participation is important to me because one can meet and interact with leaders from the region’s air forces. I think that it’s quite important. If we are seeking integration in the region and collaboration amongst ourselves, then what could be better than meeting each other and being able to exchange ideas and experiences and, why not, needs and problems? All of this enriches the region and gives us tools to be able to interact and face problems or solutions jointly.Diálogo: What is El Salvador’s goal for its participation in this conference?Col. Hernández: We want to collaborate to prevent transnational crimes like smuggling and the illicit trafficking of drugs through the Central American region. One of our objectives is this: for them to stop using our maritime, land, or air territory for this type of illicit activity. Likewise, it is a good opportunity for us to exchange ideas, propose solutions, or listen to solutions that could benefit the region and El Salvador itself.Diálogo: Which are the most important security issues facing El Salvador?Col. Hernández: Currently, the main issue facing El Salvador is gangs. We have a high daily death rate resulting from this blight, followed by drug trafficking, but I don’t think trafficking affects El Salvador as much as consumption does. Our main problem is gangs, which also affect the country’s economy, stability, and security.Diálogo: What agreements/collaboration programs does your country have with the United States and other partner nations in the region to face these kinds of issues?Col. Hernández: Coming here and being able to interact with various participants in the region demonstrates our collaboration with these countries. El Salvador has collaborative programs with Air Forces Southern and U.S. Southern Command. We’ve also had the opportunity to exchange ideas, recommendations, and solutions with the New Hampshire National Guard, which is our partner state [in the State Partnership Program]. Additionally, this meeting involves several members of the System of Cooperation among the American Air Forces (SICOFAA, per its Spanish acronym), which is an excellent program aimed at regional integration, trust-building, cooperation, and finding solutions to regional problems. It is a regional program that is very beneficial and also gives us the opportunity to interact with leaders from the air forces of Central America. In El Salvador and the Dominican Republic, we have the Central American Armed Forces Conference (CFAC, per its Spanish acronym), which is another beneficial tool, another program to face all the current challenges for the regional armed forces and, specifically, the air forces.As countries from the Central American region, I think that, like many other air forces, we have many weaknesses, such as the scarcity of resources, and I am convinced that we can only face and create solutions to these regional problems by integrating as a region.Diálogo: In terms of SICOFAA, as a member country, what do you think is the importance of this type of integrated cooperation system?Col. Hernández: SICOFAA is quite important because it allows the air forces to know each other better, to have more trust and greater cooperation among air forces. SICOFAA facilitates cooperation, consulting, and the resolution of problems through the kinds of close relationships that we have forged as members.Diálogo: As head of the Salvadoran Air Force, what is your biggest challenge?Col. Hernández: Our fundamental challenge, just like any other air force in the region or the world, is resources. Maintaining and developing an air force anywhere, regardless of what air assets you have, is expensive. So one of the challenges is maintaining an air force that is versatile, competent, useful to the region, and also has personnel that is suitable and appropriately trained to face the challenges that every air force has.Diálogo: Colonel Hernández, would you like to add anything else for readers in the region?Col. Hernández: First, I would like to thank Air Forces Southern for this invitation, and, second, I would like to invite all the air force members who attended [the Central American Air Chiefs Conference] to join forces with each other because integration is the only tool that will give us answers to the needs and issues we have as the Central American region.
By Julieta Pelcastre/Diálogo May 23, 2017 The Guatemalan Army Corps of Engineers and the U.S. Naval Construction Battalion (known as the Seabees), participated in the Water Well Drilling Course. The course was part of a training program for infrastructure projects that the engineering corps will carry out in August to provide drinking water to remote communities in Guatemala. Members of the Honduran Army and the Colombian Army also attended the course, held from April 9th to the 15th in Gulfport, Mississippi. U.S. specialists shared their knowledge and advanced skills on deep-well drilling for groundwater extraction. Participants learned how to operate high-tech equipment and well-drilling vehicles to collect pure water, as well as how to optimize resources for the purpose of achieving larger and better objectives using the fewest resources possible. “This course was a refresher for us mainly in the handling of rotary drilling machines. This is bigger equipment with greater capacity, and it’s more complex than the percussion drilling equipment that we have in our service organization,” said Second Lieutenant Alfonso José Jiménez Dubon, an engineering officer and commander of the Guatemalan Army Corps of Engineers’ Water Squad, who attended the training. During the course, service members shared information and experiences about the features of the area where the infrastructure projects in their respective countries will be implemented. For example, the Colombian Army will be working in a strategic desert area, the Honduran Army will be drilling wells in a mountainous area, and Guatemalan service members will be in a region that is close to the sea. In addition to fighting transnational organized crime organizations, drug trafficking, and gangs, the Guatemalan Army cooperates on supporting domestic development activities. In the 1970s this service branch started to explore underground hydrological resources through well drilling to supply Army units and civilian populations located farthest from these services. Since that time, the water table in Guatemala has dropped to approximately 520 meters. Before, underground water could be found at 130 meters, according to the report “Scarcity of Potable Water in Guatemalan Cities,” published by the Science and Technology Research and Forecasting Institute in 2015. In addition, the report “Water in Guatemala,” issued in 2014 by the social service foundation Archdiocese Charity of Guatemala, indicated that 90 percent of surface water sources are polluted and close to 40 percent of the population does not have access to potable water. “This has us in a bit of a bind because we only have drilling equipment that can reach 122 meters. Having modern drilling systems would help us revitalize all the water sources that we have and those that we opened up [years ago]. Currently, those wells aren’t in use because they are too deep to be useful to us,” Colonel Gustavo Méndez Morán, second commander of the Guatemalan Army Corps of Engineers, told Diálogo. “Because of the reduced supply of surface water and the pollution of many of more shallow aquifers, extracting underground water to provide clean water to the people is vital,” Col. Méndez added. During the second week of August, a Seabees detachment will travel to Guatemala to extract underground water through wells. To carry out drilling projects in the municipality of Puerto Barrios, in Izabal department, service members will take high-tech machinery that can drill to a depth of more than 305 meters and support equipment that will be transported on board a U.S. Navy vessel. In this assignment, both of the Guatemalan service members who took part in the drilling course will assist the U.S. experts in the infrastructure projects in Puerto Barrios. “We are ready for this assignment. Once again, we will have the opportunity to learn and to exchange knowledge with U.S. specialists in civil engineering and construction.” Second Lt. Jiménez noted that a well is not simply a hole that has been dug. It is a structure that must meet technical, environmental, economic, and health specifications, among others. It must have a durable, efficient, and high-quality infrastructure. “A couple of wells will provide potable water to outlying communities on the Atlantic coast of Guatemala and to the military unit [Marine Brigade] in Puerto Barrios. All of the water tables in that area are totally polluted,” Col. Méndez stressed. “This cooperation and training will really improve our capabilities as an engineering corps.” For years, the Guatemalan and the U.S. armed forces have cooperated on education, training, security, and defense matters. In 1999, officers from U.S. Southern Command (SOUTHCOM) documented the general situation with water resources in Guatemala, so they could provide accurate information to U.S. military researchers, plan various joint engineering exercises intended to provide humanitarian assistance to the civilian population, and help ensure that the Guatemalan government could maximize its use of water resources. “For Guatemala, the support we get from the different branches of the U.S. military means a lot. Thanks to their cooperation, we have taken a number of actions that contribute to community development in the most remote communities with major problems of the country,” Col. Méndez said. “According to the planning, the U.S. military group will work directly with the Guatemalan Ministry of Defense on two wells, and with other Guatemalan government agencies or municipalities on other [wells] around the country,” he concluded.